Cannibalism of olivine-rich cumulate xenoliths during the 1998 eruption of Piton de la Fournaise (La Reunion hotspot) Implications for the generation of magma diversity | INSTITUT DE PHYSIQUE DU GLOBE DE PARIS


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  Cannibalism of olivine-rich cumulate xenoliths during the 1998 eruption of Piton de la Fournaise (La Reunion hotspot) Implications for the generation of magma diversity

Type de publication:

Journal Article


Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Volume 198, Ticket 1-2, p.187-204 (2010)



Numéro d'accès:




UMR 7154 ; Volcanologie ; N° Contribution : 3076 ; assimilation; basaltic glass; cumulates; hotspot; La Réunion Island


Contrasting with its unusual isotopic homogeneity compared to other hotspot volcanoes Piton de la Fournaise has produced a large diversity of basaltic magmas over its 05 Ma history picrites and two types of transitional basalts with distinct petrological and chemical compositions A minor group of evolved basalts (anomalous group of basalts or AGB) is enriched in both compatible (Mg Fe Ti Cr and Ni) and incompatible (K Th and La) elements and depleted in Ca and Si relative to the dominant group of evolved basalts The 1998 eruption simultaneously produced the two basaltic types at two distinct vents (Hudson vent AGB Kapor vent common basalt) but from the same feeding conduit Glasses of both magmas are close in composition and belong to the single differentiation trend defined by all 1998-2007 glass compositions Thermodynamic model (MELTS code) shows that AGB type magmas cannot be produced by high pressure (>1 GPa) clinopyroxene fractionation as previously proposed and that all melts of the 1998-2007 activity period are produced by low pressure (<800 MPa) crystal fractionation from the most primitive basalt (MgO similar to 9%) Modal composition of 1998 lavas (mass balance calculation and SEM image analysis) and olivine crystal composition show that Hudson lavas have assimilated significant fractions of olivine xenocrysts contrary to Kapor lavas In addition the higher incompatible element contents of Hudson lavas suggest contamination by a differentiated (trachytic) melt. All AGB share the following characteristics (i) evolved glass compositions (ii) 5-10% olivine xenocrysts and (in) vents located in a narrow region at the summit of the edifice They are interpreted as the result of the assimilation of olivine rich xenoliths either by evolved melts or by basaltic melts contaminated by low fractions of differentiated melts produced from interstitial glass frequently coating cumulates minerals or resulting from partial melting of cumulates bearing pyroxene or plagioclase (wehrlitic to gabbroic cumulates) The scarcity of AGB magmas is attributed to their shallow transfer path in rarely intruded lateral zones of Piton de la Fournaise volcano wehrlitic to gabbroic cumulates bodies are either heterogeneously distributed within the edifice or have been depleted in low melting point components in the Rift Zone where most of the recent eruptive events are emplaced These results emphasize the exceptional chemical homogeneity of the primary basaltic melt involved in volcanic activity of Piton de la Fournaise hotspot for 0 5 Ma and the increasingly recognized role of magma-wall rock interactions in erupted magma compositions (c) 2010 Elsevier BV All rights reserved


Salaun, A. Villemant, B. Semet, M. P. Staudacher, T.