September 2005 Manda Hararo-Dabbahu rifting event, Afar (Ethiopia): Constraints provided by geodetic data | INSTITUT DE PHYSIQUE DU GLOBE DE PARIS

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  September 2005 Manda Hararo-Dabbahu rifting event, Afar (Ethiopia): Constraints provided by geodetic data

Type de publication:

Journal Article

Source:

Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, Volume 114 (2009)

ISBN:

0148-0227

Numéro d'accès:

WOS:000269246900002

URL:

http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2009/2008JB005843.shtml

Mots-clés:

UMR 7154 ; Tectonique ; n° Contribution : 2512 ; dike intrusion ; InSAR ; Afar

Résumé:

<p>We provide a new set of complementary geodetic data for the 2005 rifting event of Afar (Ethiopia). Interferometric synthetic aperture radar and subpixel correlations of synthetic aperture radar and SPOT images allow us to deduce 3-D surface displacement unambiguously. We determine the geometry of the dike and neighboring magma chambers and invert for the distribution of opening of the dike, as well as slip on rift border faults. The volume of the 2005 dike (1.5-2.0 km(3)) is not balanced by sufficient volume loss at Dabbahu and Gabho volcanoes (0.42 and 0.12 km(3), respectively). Taking into account the deflation of a suspected deep midsegment magma chamber simultaneously to dike intrusion produces a smoother opening distribution along the southern segment. Above the dike, faults slipped by an average 3 m, yielding an estimated geodetic moment of 3.5 x 10(19) Nm, one order of magnitude larger than the cumulative seismic moment released during the earthquake swarm. Between Dabbahu and Ado'Ale volcanic complexes, significant opening occurred on the western side of the dike. The anomalous location of the dike at this latitude, offset to the east of the axial depression, may explain this phenomenon. A two-stage intrusion scenario is proposed, whereby rifting in the northern Manda Hararo Rift was triggered by magma upwelling in the Dabbahu area, at the northern extremity of the magmatic segment. Although vigorous dike injection occurred during the September 2005 event, the tectonic stress deficit since the previous rifting episode was not fully released, leading to further intrusions in 2006-2009.</p>