Biogeochemical insights into microbe–mineral–fluid interactions in hydrothermal chimneys using enrichment culture | INSTITUT DE PHYSIQUE DU GLOBE DE PARIS

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  Biogeochemical insights into microbe–mineral–fluid interactions in hydrothermal chimneys using enrichment culture

Type de publication:

Journal Article

Source:

Extremophiles, Volume 19, Ticket 3, p.597 - 617 (2015)

ISBN:

1433-4909

URL:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00792-015-0742-5

Résumé:

<p>Active hydrothermal chimneys host diverse microbial communities exhibiting various metabolisms including those involved in various biogeochemical cycles. To investigate microbe–mineral–fluid interactions in hydrothermal chimney and the driver of microbial diversity, a cultural approach using a gas-lift bioreactor was chosen. An enrichment culture was performed using crushed active chimney sample as inoculum and diluted hydrothermal fluid from the same vent as culture medium. Daily sampling provided time-series access to active microbial diversity and medium composition. Active archaeal and bacterial communities consisted mainly of sulfur, sulfate and iron reducers and hydrogen oxidizers with the detection of Thermococcus, Archaeoglobus, Geoglobus, Sulfurimonas and Thermotoga sequences. The simultaneous presence of active Geoglobus sp. and Archaeoglobus sp. argues against competition for available carbon sources and electron donors between sulfate and iron reducers at high temperature. This approach allowed the cultivation of microbial populations that were under-represented in the initial environmental sample. The microbial communities are heterogeneously distributed within the gas-lift bioreactor; it is unlikely that bulk mineralogy or fluid chemistry is the drivers of microbial community structure. Instead, we propose that micro-environmental niche characteristics, created by the interaction between the mineral grains and the fluid chemistry, are the main drivers of microbial diversity in natural systems.</p>