Tsunami Wave Height Estimation from GPS-Derived Ionospheric Data | INSTITUT DE PHYSIQUE DU GLOBE DE PARIS


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  Tsunami Wave Height Estimation from GPS-Derived Ionospheric Data

Type de publication:

Journal Article


Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Volume 123, p.4329-4348 (2018)




inversion, normal modes, TEC, tsunami


<p>Abstract Large underwater earthquakes (Mw&gt;7) can transmit part of their energy to the surrounding ocean through large seafloor motions, generating tsunamis that propagate over long distances. The forcing effect of tsunami waves on the atmosphere generates internal gravity waves that, when they reach the upper atmosphere, produce ionospheric perturbations. These perturbations are frequently observed in the total electron content (TEC) measured by multifrequency Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) such as GPS, GLONASS, and, in the future, Galileo. This paper describes the first inversion of the variation in sea level derived from GPS TEC data. We used a least squares inversion through a normal-mode summation modeling. This technique was applied to three tsunamis in far field associated to the 2012 Haida Gwaii, 2006 Kuril Islands, and 2011 Tohoku events and for Tohoku also in close field. With the exception of the Tohoku far-field case, for which the tsunami reconstruction by the TEC inversion is less efficient due to the ionospheric noise background associated to geomagnetic storm, which occurred on the earthquake day, we show that the peak-to-peak amplitude of the sea level variation inverted by this method can be compared to the tsunami wave height measured by a DART buoy with an error of less than 20%. This demonstrates that the inversion of TEC data with a tsunami normal-mode summation approach is able to estimate quite accurately the amplitude and waveform of the first tsunami arrival.</p>