More than 70 % of the Earth surface is covered by seas and oceans. Several tectonic phenomena, among the most devastating, take place in ocean environment. For example, the subduction zones, which can generate mega-earthquakes associated with devastating tsunamis (Sumatra in 2004 Tohoku in 2011), but also the underwater strike-slip faults. In many cases, methods of space geodesy cannot discriminate between a blocked or aseismic behavior, because the instruments are located too far from the area potentially deformed by the tectonic process. Thus, it is necessary to develop new techniques to extend conventional observation networks off-shore to map the deformation in the entire area.
This thesis focuses on two seafloor geodesy methods, in order to assess the seismic risk evaluation. The first is the relative acoustic ranging, with an effective deployment off the Marmara Sea area. Our early results suggest a locked state at the segment of the North
Anatolian fault off Istanbul.
The second area considered is the Caribbean subduction. The working scale requires localization of the observed points in a global reference frame. We study ocean processes to consider, and detail a GNSS/A (Acoustic) methodology, consisting of acoustic interrogations from a precisely GNSS positioned surface platform, for a future absolute positioning experience off Guadeloupe.