This article introduces a methodology for integrating geochemical data in reservoir simulations to improve hydrocarbon reservoir models. The method exploits routine measurements of naturally existing inorganic ion concentration in hydrocarbon reservoir production wells, and uses the ions as non-partitioning water tracers. The methodology is demonstrated on a North Sea field case, using the field's reservoir model, together with geochemical information (SO2/4-,Mg2+,K+,Ba2+,Sr2+,Ca2+ and Cl(-)concentrations) from the field's producers. Based on the dataset, some of the ions are shown to behave almost as ideal seawater tracers, i.e. without sorption to the matrix, ion exchange with the matrix or scale formation with other ions in the formation water. Moreover, the dataset shows that ion concentrations in pure formation water vary according to formation. This information can be used to allocate produced water to specific water-producing zones in commingled production. Based on SO2/4-, an evaluation of the available data, one inorganic component, SO2/4- is used as a natural seawater tracer. Introducing SO2/4- as a natural tracer in a tracer simulation has revealed a potential for improvements of the reservoir model. By tracking the injected seawater it was possible to identify underestimated fault lengths in the reservoir model. The demonstration confirms that geochemical data are valuable additional information for reservoir characterization, and shows that integration of geochernical data into reservoir simulation procedures can improve reservoir simulation models. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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