In geomorphology, descriptions in terms of differential equations are useful because they allow to express different relationships among various parameters. Nevertheless, in a vast majority of cases, these relationships are not well defined, there is a large variety of theoretical formalisms, the role of heterogeneities is not taken into account and numerical procedures cannot handle a wide range of length scales. Then, cellular automaton (CA) approach can be described as an alternative which focus on self organization and the emergence of structure without taking into account all the diversity of the small scale physical and chemical properties. In particular, we propose a new approach and more conceptual approach that can be described as a Real-Space Cellular Automaton:

Real-Space Cellular-Automaton approach.

 Applications include

Landscape dynamics                                                                     and                                                                                Populations of dunes